I would like to briefly explain the Freedoms of the Air, which are based on the Chicago Conference held in 1944 and regulates how civil air transport operates in terms of inter-state flight traffic.
Airline companies registered in different states cannot easily unite and may encounter some problems when they want to fly to a destination outside the country where they are registered.
While there are nine traffic rights in total, only the first five articles have been officially adopted internationally.
Air Traffic Rights (Freedoms of the Air)
First Freedom of the Air
Passing through the airspace of a foreign state without landing.
Ex: The use of Lufthansa, a German company, in the airspace of various states during the Munich-London flight.
Second Freedom of the Air
While flying to a foreign state, landing at the airports of another foreign state for fuel supply and technical maintenance.
Ex: Lufthansa, a plane flying from Munich to Antalya, landing in Bucharest and purchasing fuel.
Third Freedom of the Air
A company flies from its home country to a foreign country.
Ex: THY’s Istanbul-London flight.
Fourth Freedom of the Air
A company flies from a foreign country to its own country.
Ex: Lufthansa’s London-Munich flight.
Fifth Freedom of the Air
Flight between two foreign states and carrying passengers between the two countries, provided that the starting or ending point of the flight is the company’s own country.
Ex: Lufthansa on a Munich-Paris-London expedition. The difference from the second right of way is that, in this example, it is allowed to transport passengers between Paris and London.
Sixth Freedom of the Air
The departure point of the voyage is a foreign country and the company can continue to another foreign country after landing in its own country.
Seventh Freedom of the Air
Commercial transportation between two foreign countries without landing in their own country.
Ex: Lufthansa carrying passengers between London and Zurich.
Eighth Freedom of the Air
An airline company arranges flights between more than one airport within a foreign country, provided that the starting or ending point of the flight is its own country.
Ex: Lufthansa’s Munich-London-Manchester flight.
Ninth Freedom of the Air
Commercial transportation in the domestic lines of a foreign country.
Ex: Lufthansa carrying passengers between London and Manchester.
For ICAO source.
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