Takeoff Speeds V1 – VR (Rotate) – V2

In the realm of aviation, takeoff is a critical phase that requires precise coordination and adherence to established safety parameters. Among these parameters are three crucial takeoff speeds: V1, VR (Rotate), and V2. Each speed plays a distinct role in ensuring a smooth and safe lift-off. In this article, we are going to cover the Takeoff speeds in brief. With sequence, we will define V1, VR, and finally V2.

V1 speed

V1 speed is the speed beyond which the takeoff should no longer be aborted. Above V1, the takeoff must be continued unless there is reason to believe that the aircraft will not fly. An engine failure identified before reaching VR speed should always result in a rejected takeoff. The rejected takeoff decision before V1 speed is possible to end with a safe stop within ASDA (accelerate stop distance available). If a reject is initiated at a speed above V1, there is a high risk of runway excursion.

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According to the aeromagazine (Aero_11) of Boeing company: “More than half the RTO-Rejected TakeOff accidents and incidents reported in the past 30 years were initiated from a speed in excess of V1.”

VR (Rotation) speed

VR (Rotation) is the speed at which the pilot begins to apply control inputs to cause the aircraft nose to pitch up, after which it will leave the ground. It cannot be less than V1. So again the rejection of takeoff after VR speed likely to result with runway excursion.

V2 speed

V2 is takeoff safety speed. The speed at which the aircraft may safely climb with one engine inoperative. The takeoff safety speed must be attained at the 35 ft. height at the end of the required runway distance.

V1 - VR - V2 takeoff speeds
V1 – VR – V2 takeoff speeds

Understanding the Interplay of V1, VR, and V2

These three takeoff speeds are interconnected and play a critical role in ensuring a safe and successful takeoff. V1 sets the point of no return, VR initiates the nose-up rotation, and V2 guarantees safe climb capability with one engine inoperative. Pilots carefully calculate and adhere to these speeds to minimize the risk of accidents during takeoff.


  • V1 < VR < V2. They’re like stepping stones to a successful takeoff.
  • These speeds depend on factors like aircraft weight, runway length, and weather.
  • Pilots carefully calculate them before every flight.

In summary, V1, VR, and V2 are essential takeoff speeds that pilots must carefully consider to ensure a safe and successful liftoff. Understanding their significance and adhering to their prescribed values is paramount for maintaining aviation safety.

References and Further Reading Links

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