Bank angle refers to the angle at which an aircraft is tilted to one side as it turns. The angle is measured between the longitudinal axis (Roll axis) of the aircraft (the axis that runs from the nose to the tail) and the horizon.
When an aircraft is in a banked position, there are several forces at play. The main force is the centrifugal force, which acts perpendicular to the direction of the turn and pushes the aircraft towards the outside of the turn. This force is counteracted by the lift force generated by the wings, which pushes the aircraft up and keeps it in the air.
Another force at play is the drag force, which acts opposite to the direction of motion and slows down the aircraft. The aircraft’s engines must work harder to overcome this force and maintain the desired speed during a turn.
Finally, there is the gravitational force acting on the aircraft, which pulls it towards the center of the earth. This force is also counteracted by the lift force, which must be greater than the weight of the aircraft to keep it in the air.
Overall, the bank angle and the forces involved in a turn are important for the safe and efficient operation of an aircraft. Pilots must carefully control the bank angle and the thrust of the engines to maintain a safe and stable flight path.